Guerra jurídica: el caso colombiano

  • Juan Manuel Padilla Escuela Militar de Cadetes “General José María Córdova”
Palabras clave: guerra jurídica del sistema judicial colombiano, ELN, FARC, grupos terroristas en Colombia

Resumen

Los grupos terroristas en Colombia han aplicado la teoría de Mao de la guerra popular prolongada, tratando de utilizar todos los medios disponibles de lucha para lograr sus objetivos revolucionarios de contrarrestar la política de gobiemo. Una manera en que Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), el Ejército de la Liberación Nacional (ELN) y grupos paramilitares ilegales confrontan a la nación es el uso de la “guerra jurídica” que se define como el uso por parte de fuerzas de oposición de sistemas judiciales nacionales e intemacionales, para lograr la victoria y ganar legitimidad, por cuanto no pueden enfrentar militarmente al gobierno. Los grupos terroristas se han infiltrado hábilmente en el sistema judicial colombiano, y están haciendo uso tanto de instituciones legales nationales como del sistema de derecho intemacional, para ir en contra del gobierno. Han recibido apoyo para su lucha de distintos agentes y organizaciones al interior de la sociedad que intencionalmente o no, están sirviendo a sus intereses. En el presente artículo, donde se presenta una comprensión holística de esta compleja situación que actualmente tiene lugar en Colombia, se muestra cómo las FARC y el ELN están utilizando la guerra jurídica en el contexto de la guerra popular prolongada, como una herramienta para desafiar al gobierno, y ofrece un punto de partida para examinar alternativas de solución que permitan frenar la capacidad de los grupos terroristas de utilizar el sistema judicial para el logro de sus objetivos políticos.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Biografía del autor/a

Juan Manuel Padilla, Escuela Militar de Cadetes “General José María Córdova”
Máster en Seguridad y Defensa Nacional, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. Director de la Escuela Militar de Cadetes “General José María Córdova”.
Cómo citar
Padilla, J. M. (2012). Guerra jurídica: el caso colombiano. Revista Científica General José María Córdova, 10(10), 107-142. https://doi.org/10.21830/19006586.230

Referencias bibliográficas

Arango, Carlos (1985). FARC: Veinte Anos (FARC: Twenty Years). Bogota, Colombia: Ediciones Aurora.

Atkinson, James (1966). The Politics of Struggle. The Communist Front and Polítical Warfare. Chicago, Illinois: Henry Regnery Company.

Beckett, Ian (200l). Modem Insurgencies and Counter-Insurgencies. London, England: Routledge, TJ Intemational Ltda.

Calamadrei, Piero (1946). The Eulogy of Judges, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Carlson, John and Neville Yeomans (1975). Whither Goeth the Law - Humanitarian or Barbarity in the Way Out, RadicalAltemative in Australía. Australia: Smith & Crossley Editions.

Cavaleri, David (2005). Law of War: Can 20th Century Standards Apply to the Global War on Terror? Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute Press.

PMCid:PMC2639872

Clausewitz, Carl (1832/1976). On War. Princeton, New Jersey: Michael Howard and Peter Paret, ed., and trasl.

Clavijo, Adolfo (2002). Colombia: Otra Muerte Anunciada (Colombia, Another Announced Death). Cited in the book: Clavijo, Adolfo, Ed. (2002).

Clavijo, Adolfo & Clavijo, Jr. Daniel (2006). Bajo el Fuego de las Presiones. Bogota, Colombia: Ediciones Javeriana.

Clavijo, Adolfo, Ed. (2002). Esquilando el Lobo. Bogota, Colombia: Panamericana Formas e Impresos.

PMCid:PMC226993

Clavijo, Adolfo, Ed. (2009). La Justicia Injusta. Bogota, Colombia: Magazine, Panamericana Formas e Impresos.

Demarest, Geoff (2009). Property & Peace, Insurgency, Strategy, and the Statute of Frauds. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Foreign Military Studies Office.

https://doi.org/10.21236/ADA501864

Diamond, Larry, Juan Linz and Seymour Lipset (1989). Democracy in Developing Countries. London, England: Adamantine Press Limited, 1989.

Dirk, Brian (2003). Waging War on Trial. Santa Barbara, California: ABC Clio, Inc.

PMCid:PMC196591

Distein, Yoram (2004). The Conduct of Hostilities, Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Dunlap, Charles Jr. (2001). Law and Military Interventions: Preserving Humanitarian Values in 2st. Article prepared for the Humanitarian Challenges in Military Intervention Conference Carr Center for Human Rights Policy Kennedy School of Government (Washington, D.C.: 29 November 2001).

Dunlap, Charles Jr. (2008). Lawfare Today. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.

Dunlap, Charles Jr. & Charles Dunlap (2009). Lawfare: A Decisive Element of 2st Century Conflict? Washington D.C.: Joint Force Quarterly, issue 54, Third Quarter.

Evangelista, Mathew (2008). Law, Ethics, and the War on Terror. Cambridge, UK: Malden, Polity Press.

Femandez, Javier (2005). The Cost of War in Colombia: a Strategic Vision ofthe End of the Conflict. Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania: United States War College.

Forero, Juan (July 10 2001). Rights Groups Lists Abuses by Guerrilla in Colombia, New York Times.

Galula, David (2005). Counterinsurgency Warfare: Theory and Practice. Florida: Hailer Publishing.

Gaviria, José O (2005). Sofismas del Terrorismo en Colombia. Bogota, Colombia: Planeta Ediciones.

Golstein, Brooke and Aaron Eitan Meyer (February-March 2009), Lawfare, How Islam Lawfare Tactics is Targeting the Free Speech. The Counter Terrorist.

Gomez-Gallego, Jose (17th December 2009). Comision de la Verdad sobre El Holocausto en el Palacio de Justicia (Truth Commision about the Justice Palace Holocauste). Bogota, Colombia: Document presented to the Colombian Congress.

Gray, Christine (2004). Intemational Law and the Use of Force. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Green, Leslie (2000). The Contemporary Law of Armed Conflicto Manchester, UK: Juris Publishing, Manchester University Press.

Green, Leslie (2004). The Contemporary Law of Armed Conflicto Manchester, United Kingdom: Juris Publishing, Manchester University Press.

Greenberg, Lawrence (1998). Seymour Goodman and Kevin Soo Hoo. Information Warfare and Intemational Law. Washington D.C.: National Defense University Press.

Greenwood, Christopher (1993). Command and the Laws of Armed Conflict, United Kingdom: Strategic & Combat Studies Institute.

Hammes, Thomas (2006). The Sling and the Stone. On War in the 2pt Century. St Paul, Minnesota: Zenith Press.

Headquarters of the US Army (2006). Counterinsurgency FM 3-24.33.

Henninger, Daniel (Aug 27, 2009). War on Terror is Over. In Wonder Land. Wall Street Joumal.

Hensel, Howard M. (2008). The Legitimate Use of Military Force: the just war tradition and the customary law of armed conflict. Aldershot, England: Burlington Editions.

Karoubi, Mohammad (2004). Just or Injust War? Intemational Law and Unilateral Use of Armed Force by States at the Tum of the 20th Century. Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing Company.

PMid:15190968

Landman, Todd (2007). Issues and Methods in Comparative Politics. An Introduction. Abington, Great Britain: Routledge TJ Intemational.

Ling, Qiao and Wang Xiangsui (February 1999). Unrestricted Warfare. Beijing, China: PLA Literature and Art Publishing House.

Marcella, Gabriel (December 2009). Democratic Governance and the Rule of Law: Lessons from Colombia. Carlisle Barracks, PA: United States War College, Strategic Studie’s Institute.

Marston, Daniel and Carter Malkasian (2008). Counterinsurgency in Modem Warfare. Oxford, United Kingdom: Osprey Publishing Ltd.

Mejía-Azuero, Jean Carlo (2007). Situacion Perspectivas y Estrategias Frente a la Defensa del Estado (Situation, Perspectives and Strategiesfacing the State Defense). Bogota Colombia: Editorial Dike.

Mejía-Azuero, Jean Carlo (2008). La Guerra Jurídica y la Guerra Judicial. Bogota, Colombia: ACORE Magazine.

Mejia-Ferrero, Alberto (2008). Colombia's National Security Strategy: A New COIN Approach. Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania: US Army War College.

https://doi.org/10.21236/ADA478358

Ministerio del Interior y Justicia, Servicio Nacional de Estadisticas. http://www.mii.gov.co/ eContent/home.asp (accessed Januaty 19, 2010).

Ministry of National Defense Office (1999). Plan Colombia. Bogota, Colombia.

Ministry of National Defense Office (2003). Democratic Security and Defense Policy. Bogota, Colombia.

Ministry of National Defense Office (2009). The FARC at its worst moment. Bogota, Colombia.

O'Neil, Bard (1990). Insurgency and Terrorism: Inside Modem Revolution Warfare. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books.

PMCid:PMC185016

Ortiz, Eduardo (1998). Guerra Politica a Nivel Tactico (Political Warfare at the Tactical Level). Bogota, Colombia: Imprenta y Publicaciones FFMM.

Ottaway, Marina (2003). Democracy Challenged, The Rise of Semi-Authoritarianism. Washington D.C.: Camegie Endowment for Intemational Peace.

Palacio, Marco (2006). Between Legitimacy and Violence, a history of Colombia 1875-2002. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press.

https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822387893

Peña, Alejandro. Alias Samir con Peña Esclusa: “Chávez apoya a las FARC” (Alias Samir with Peña Esclusa: “Chávez supports FARC”). Available at http://www.unoamerica.org/unoPAG/noticia. php?id=761; accessed on 20 February 2010.

Perdomo, Jose (2007). Colombia's democratic security and defense policy in the demobilization of the paramilitaries. Monograph. Carlisle Barracks. Pennsylvania: US Army War College.

PMCid:PMC2665252

Phillips Robert (1984). War and Justice. Oklahoma: Oklahoma University Press.

Posada, Eduardo (2002). ¿Guerra Civil? El Lenguaje del Conflicto en Colombia (Civil War? The Lenguaje of the Conflict in Colombia. Bogota, Colombia: Fundacion Ideas para la Paz.

Ramsey, Robert (2007). A Masterpiece of Counterguerrilla Warfare: BG J Franklin Bell in the Philippines, 1901-1902. Forth Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute Press, CAC.

Ramsey, Robert (2009). From El Billar to Operations Fenix and Jaque: The Colombian Security Force Experience, 1998-2008. Forth Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute Press.

https://doi.org/10.21236/ADA514131

Rangel, Alfredo (2008). Delito político, tardío y prematuro. Bogota, Colombia: ACORE Magazine.

Rawson, Rolly (2003). Does the Law of Armed Conflict Need to Evolve With Respect to Non-State Actors? Newport, Rhode Island: Naval War College.

PMCid:PMC152671

Reisman, Michael and Antoniou, Chirs (1994). The Laws of War: A Comprehensive Collection of Primary Documents on Intemational Laws Goveming Armed Conflict. New York: Vintage Books.

PMCid:PMC359320

Revel, Jean (1984). How Democracies Perish. Ney York: Editions Grassets.

Rishikov, Harvey (January 2008). Juridical Warfare: the neglected legal instrument, Washington D.C.: Joint Force Quarterly.

Safford, Frank & Palacios, Marco (2002). Colombia: Fragmented Land, Divided Society. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

PMCid:PMC166563

Salcedo, Juan (2008). Delito político y guerra política. Bogota, Colombia: ACORE Magazine.

Santos, Juan Manuel (2009). Jaque al Terror (Check to Terror). Bogota, Colombia: Editorial Planeta.

Schoen, Douglas & Rowan, Michael (2009). Hugo Chavez and the War against America. The Threat Closer to Rome. (New York: Free Press, 2009).

Schultz, Sarah (2005). The Just War or just a war? A proposal for ethical joint doctrine of war. Naval Postgraduate School Monterey. California: Department of Security Affairs.

Smith, B.C. (2003). Understanding Third Worl Politics, Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.

Tse-Tung, Mao (1936). Problems of Strategy in China’s Revolutionary War, Selected Works.

Tse-Tung, Mao (1938). Art of War.

Tse-Tung, Mao (1938). On Protracted War.

Turabian, Kate L. (2007). A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (7th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Tzu, Sun (2009). The Art of War. Kindle Edition.

Valcarcel Juan M. (2007). Concepto de Conflicto Armado Interno y Seguridad Jurídica. Monograph. Bogota, Colombia: School of Law, Nueva Granada University.

Valcarcel, Juan M. (2008). Beligerancia, Terrorismo y Conflicto Armado: No es un Juego de Palabras. Monograph. Bogota, Colombia: School of Law, Nueva Granada University.

Verges, J acques (2008). Estrategia Judicial de los Procesos Políticos (Judicial Strategy of the Political Processes). Barcelona, Spain: Anagrama Editorial.

Villar, Rodrigo (2006). El Tercer Sector, la Sociedad Civil y la Gobernabildad Democratica en Colombia (The Third Sector, The Civil Society and the Democratic Governability in Colombia). Bogota, Colombia: Red de Desarrollo Tecnológico y Fortalecimiento Institucional.

Washington, D.C.: Carr Center for Human Rights Policy. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Wesson, Robert (1982). Democracy in Latin America. Promise arid Problems. New York: Praeger Publishers.

Publicado
2012-01-30
Sección
Justicia y Derechos Humanos

Más sobre este tema