La atribución pública como reguladora de emociones

Manipulación de los efectos políticos de las hostilidades


Debates about attribution in security and strategic studies often focus on the technical feasibility of the process at the expense of its political utility. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the emotional effects of attribution. The general argument of this paper is that public attribution can constitute a mechanism for converting effects produced by hostile activities into favorable circumstances by regulating emotions of domestic populations. Allocating responsibility to one’s own identity is likely to elicit guilt, shame or pride, blaming the specific “other” is likely to elicit anger, and blaming the impersonal circumstances is likely to elicit sadness. Anger and pride can be harnessed to support escalatory foreign policies. Guilt, shame and sadness are likely to be used for de-escalatory policies of restraint.


La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Biografía del autor/a

Samuel Žilinčík, Masaryk University, Brno, República Checa

Magister en Seguridad y Estudios Estratégicos de la Universidad Masaryk en Brno, República Checa. En su investigación doctoral, se centra en la teoría estratégica y la historia estratégica. Es autor y coautor de varios artículos científicos que examinan el carácter y la naturaleza de la guerra contemporánea.

Cómo citar
Žilinčík, S. (2019). La atribución pública como reguladora de emociones. Revista Científica General José María Córdova, 17(28), 869-889.


Angie, A., Connelly, S., Waples, E., & Kligyte, V. (2011). The influence of discrete emotions on judgement and decision-making: A meta-analytic review. Cognition & Emotion, 25(8), 1393-1422. https://doi.10.1080/02699931.2010.55075

Ariffin, Y. (2016). How emotions can explain outcomes in international relations. In Y. Ariffin, J. Coicaud, & V. Popovski (Eds.), Emotions in international politics (pp. 1-16). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Bleske-Rechek, A., Gunseor, M. M., & Maly, J. R. (2018). Does the language fit the evidence? Unwarranted causal language in psychological scientists’ scholarly work. The Behavior Therapist, 41(8), 341-352.

Bishop, M., & Goldman, E. (2003). The strategy and tactics of information warfare. Contemporary Security Policy, 24(1), 113-139. https://doi.10.1080/13523260312331271839

Bush, G. (2011). Address to Joint Session of Congress Following 9/11 Attacks. Retrieved from

Caltagirone, S., Pendergast, A., & Betz, C. (2013). The diamond model of intrusion analysis. Hanover, Germany: Center for Cyber Intelligence Analysis and Threat.

Clausewitz, C. von. (2000). On war. In R. Peters (Ed.), The book of war: Sun-Tzu’s “The Art of War” & Karl von Clausewitz’s “On War” (pp. 265-958). New York, NY: The Modern Library.

Clore, G. L., & Ortony, A. (2008). Appraisal theories: How cognition shapes affect into emotion. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. F. Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd Ed., pp. 628-642). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Crawford, N. C. (2000). The passion of world politics: Propositions on emotion and emotional relationships. International Security, 24(4), 116-156.

Crawford, N. C. (2013). Emotions and international security: Cave! Hic Libido. Critical Studies on Security, 1(1), 121-123. https://doi.10.1080/21624887.2013.790218

Crawford, N. C. (2014). Institutionalizing passion in world politics: fear and empathy. International Theory, 6(3), 535-55. https://10.1017/S1752971914000256

Damasio, A. (2006). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason and the human brain. London, England: Vintage.

Duyvesteyn, I. (2017). Global strategic studies: A manifesto. Journal of Strategic Studies, 40(3), 347-357. https://doi.10.1080/01402390.2016.1269228

Edwards, B., Furnas, A., Forrest, S., & Axelrod, R. (2017). Strategic aspects of cyberattack, attribution, and blame. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 114(11), 2825-2830. https://doi.10.1073/pnas.1700442114

Egloff, F. J., & Wenger, A. (2019). Public attribution of cyber incidents. In F. Merz (Ed.), CSS Analyses in Security Policy. Zurich, Switzerland: Center for Security Studies.

Fitton, O. (2016). Cyber operations and gray zones: Challenges for NATO. Connections: The Quarterly Journal, 15(2), 109-119.

Frijda, N. H., Manstead, A. S. R., & Bem, S. (2000). The influence of emotions on beliefs. In N. H. Frijda, A. S. R. Manstead, & S. Bem (Eds.), Emotions and beliefs: How feelings influence thoughts (pp. 1-9). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Frijda, N. H., & Mesquita, B. (2000). Beliefs through emotions. In N. H. Frijda, A. S. R. Manstead, & S. Bem (Eds.), Emotions and beliefs: How feelings influence thoughts (pp. 45-64). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Garry, J. (2014). Emotions and voting in EU referendums. European Union Politics, 15(2), 235-254. https://doi.10.1177/1465116513514780

Gray, C. (2011). The strategy bridge: Theory for practice. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Greenberg, A. (2018, August 22). The untold story of NotPetya, the most devastating cyberattack in history. WIRED. Retrieved from

Grindal, K., Kuerbis, B., Badiei, F., & Mueller, M. (2018, August). Is it time to institutionalize cyber-attribution? Internet Governance Project White Paper. Retrieved from

Hacker, P. (2018). Passions: The study of human nature. Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Hare, F. (2012). The significance of attribution to cyberspace coercion: A political perspective. In C. Czosseck, R. Ottis, & K. Ziolkowski (Eds.), 4th International Conference on Cyber Conflict (pp. 125-139). Tallinn, Estonia: NATO CCD COE Publications.

Hall, T. (2015). Emotional diplomacy. New York, NY: Cornell University Press.

Jervis, R. (2017). Perception and misperception in international relations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Kavanagh, D. J., & Bower, G. H. (1985). Mood and self- efficacy: Impact of joy and sadness on perceived capabilities. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9(5), 507-525.

Kello, L. (2017). The virtual weapon and international order (pp. 198-200). New Haven, The United States of America: Yale University Press.

Kendrick, O. (2006). The My Lai Massacre in American history and memory. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press.

Kilduff, M., & Menges, J. (2015). Group emotions: Cutting the Gordion knots concerning terms, levels-of-analysis, and processes. The Academy of Management Annals, 9(1), 1- 117. https://doi.10.1080/19416520.2015.1033148

Kim, J. (2015). The effects of collective anger and fear on policy support in response to terrorist attacks. The Journal of Social Psychology, 156(5), 455-468. https://doi.10.1080/00224545.2015.1119669

Kleef, G., & Fischer, A. (2016). Emotional collectives: How groups shape emotions and emotions shape groups. Cognition and Emotion, 30(1), 3-19. https://doi.10.1080/02699931.2015.1081349

Lazarus, R. S. (2001). Relational meaning and discrete emotions. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal process in emotion: Theory, methods, research (pp. 37-67). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Lebow, N. R. (2008). A cultural theory of international relations. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Lerner, J., Li, Y., Valdesolo, P., & Kassam, K. (2015). Emotion and decision making. Annual Review of Psychology, 66(1), 799-823. https://doi.10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115043

Lerner, J. S., Gonzalez, R. M., Small, D. A., & Fischhoff, B. (2003). Emotion and perceived risks of terrorism: A national field experiment. Psychological Science, 14(2), 144-150.

Lerner, J., & Keltner, D. (2000). Beyond valence: Toward a model of emotion-specific influences on judgement and choice. Cognition and Emotion, 14(4), 473-493. https://doi.10.1080/026999300402763

Libicki, M. C. (2009) Cyberdeterrence and cyberwar. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.

Iasiello, E. (2014). Is cyber deterrence an illusory course of action. Journal of Strategic Security, 7(1), 54-67. https://doi.10.5038/1944-0472.7.1.5

Markwica, R. (2018). Emotional choices: How the logic of affect shapes coercive diplomacy. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Maos, M., & Gross, J. J. (2015). Emotion regulation: Implications for political science and international relations. Paper prepared for presentation at the workshop on The Politics of Non-Proportionate Policy Response. Warsaw, Poland: ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops.

McDermott, R., Lopez, A. C., & Hatemi, P. K. (2017). Blunt not the heart, enrage it: The psychology of revenge and deterrence. Psychology of War, 1(1), 68-88.

Meier, A. N., Schmid, L., & Stutzer, A. (2019). Rain, emotions and voting for the status quo. European Economic Review, 119(2), 434-451. https://doi.10.1016/j.euroecorev.2019.07.014

Mendible, M. (2016). American shame: Stigma and the body politic. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Mercer, J. (2010). Emotional beliefs. International Organization, 64(1), 1-31. https://doi.10.1017/S0020818309990221

Mercer, J. (2013). Emotion and strategy in the Korean War. International Organization, 67(2), 221-252.

Mercer, J. (2014). Feeling like a state: Social emotion and identity. International Theory, 6(3), 515-535. https://doi.10.1017/S1752971914000244

Milevski, L. (2019). Battle and its emotive effects in war termination. Conference Paper. Oxford, England: Changing Character of War Conference.

Modderkolk, H. (2018, January 25). Dutch agencies provide crucial intel about Russia’s interference in US-elections. de Volkskrant. Retrieved from

Mohan, B. (2016). A demonstration of the discourse dissection model (DDM) with an analysis of FD Roosevelt’s “Pearl Harbour address to the nation”. Journal of Theoretical Linguistics, 13(1), 62-86.

Moors, A. (2013). On the causal role of appraisal in emotion. Emotion Review, 5(2), 132-140. https://doi.10.1177/1754073912463601

Moors, A., Ellsworth, P., Scherer, K. R., & Frijda, N. H. (2013). Appraisal theories of emotion: State of the art and future development. Emotion Review, 5(2), 119-124. https://doi.10.1177/1754073912468165

Nakashima, E., & Rucker, P. (2017, December 19). U.S. declares North Korea carried out massive wannacry cyberattack. Washington Post. Retrieved from

Nye, J. (2017). Deterrence and dissuasion in cyberspace. International Security, 41(3), 44-71.

Office of the Director of National Intelligence. (2018, September). A guide to cyber attribution. Retrieved from

Payne, K. (2018). Strategy, evolution, and war. Washington: Georgetown University Press.

Payne, K. (2015). The psychology of strategy: Exploring rationality in the Vietnam War. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Prince, C. (2018, October 8). Countering Russian cyber operations. RUSI. Retrieved from

Prokop, A. (2016, Jul 18). Why Republicans want Obama to denounce “radical Islam” and why he won’t do it. Vox. Retrieved from

Rid, T., & Buchanan, B. (2015). Attributing cyber attacks. The Journal of Strategic Studies, 38(1-2), 4-37.

Rolls, E. (2014). Emotion and decision-making explained. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Roseman, I. J. (2001). A model of appraisal in the emotion system: Integrating theory, research, and applications. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal process in emotion: Theory, methods, research. Oxford, England: Oxford University.

Roseman, I. J., & Smith, C. A. (2001). Appraisal theory. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal process in emotion: Theory, methods, research (pp. 1-20). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Ross, A. A. G. (2014). Mixed emotions: Beyond fear and hatred in international conflict. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Rythoven, E. V. (2015). Learning to feel, learning to fear? Emotions, imaginaries, and limits in the politics of securitization. Security Dialogue, 46(5), 458-475. https://doi.10.1177/0967010615574766

Sadler, M. S., Lineberger, M., Correll, J., & Park, B. (2005). Emotions, attributions, and policy endorsement in response to the September 11th terrorist attacks. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 27(3), 249-258.

Scherer, K. (2001a). Appraisal considered as a process of multilevel sequential checking. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal process in emotion: Theory, methods, research. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Scherer, K. (2001b). The nature and the study of appraisal: A review of the issues. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal process in emotion: Theory, methods, research (pp. 369-390). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Scheve, Ch., & Ismer, S. (2013). Towards a theory of collective emotions. Emotion Review, 5(4), 406-413. https://doi.10.1177/1754073913484170

Schorr, A. (2001). Appraisal: The evolution of an idea. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal process in emotion: Theory, methods, research (pp. 20-34). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Schulzske, M. (2018). The politics of attributing blame for cyberattacks and the costs of uncertainty. Perspectives on Politics, 16(4), 954-968.

Schwartz, G. E., & Weinberger, D. A. (1980). Patterns of emotional responses to affective situations: Relations among happiness, sadness, anger, fear, depression, and anxiety. Motivation and Emotion, 4(2), 148-170.https://doi.10.1007/BF00995197

Skitka, L. J., Bauman, Ch. W., Aramovich, N. P., & Morgan, S. G. (2006). Confrontational and preventative policy responses to terrorism: Anger wants a fight and fear wants “Them” to go away. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 28(4), 375-384.

Small, D. A., Lerner, J. S., & Fischhoff, B. (2006). Emotion priming and attributions for terrorism: Americans’ reactions in a national field experiment. Political Psychology, 27(2), 289-298.

Smith, M. L. R. (2014). Politics and passion: The neglected mainspring of war, Infinity Journal, 4(2), 32-36.

Smith, C. A., & Ellsworth, P. C. (1985). Patterns of cognitive appraisal in emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(4), 813-838. https://doi.10.1037/0022-3514.48.4.813

Smith, C. A., & Lazarus, R. S. (1993). Appraisal components, core relational themes, and the emotions. Emotion and Cognition, 7(3-4), 233-269.

Steiger, R. L., Reyna, Ch., Wetherell, G., & Iverson, G. (2019). Contempt of Congress: Do Liberals and Conservatives harbor equivalent negative emotional biases towards ideologically congruent vs. incongruent politicians at the level of individual emotions? Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 7(1), 100-123. https://doi.10.5964/jspp.v7i1.822

Stein, N., & Trabasso, T. (1992). The organisation of emotional experience: Creating links among emotion, thinking, language, and intentional action. Cognition & Emotion, 6(4), 225-244. https://doi.10.1080/02699939208411070

Stewart, D. (2017). From Leuktra to Nabis, 371-192. In Powel, A. (Ed.), A companion to Sparta (pp. 374-402). Hoboken, N. J.: John Willey and Sons Ltd.

Storbeck, J., & Clore, G. (2007). On the interdependence of cognition and emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 21(6), 1212-1237. https://doi.10.1080/02699930701438020

Sun Tzu. (1993). The art of war (R. T. Ames, Trans.). New York, NY: The Random House Publishing Group.

Tangney, J., Stuewig, J., & Hafez, L. (2011). Shame, guilt, and remorse: implications for offender populations. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 22(5), 706-723. https://doi.10.1080/14789949.2011.617541

Thucydides. (1974). History of the Peloponnesian war (R. Warner, Trans.). New York, NY: Penguin Group.

Trujillo, C. (2014). The limits of cyberspace deterrence. Joint-Force Quarterly, 75(3), 43-52.

Valeriano, B., & Maness, R. (2015). Cyber war versus cyber realities. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Wager, T. D., Kang, J., Johnson, T. D., Nichols, T. E., Satpute, A. B., & Barrett, L. F. (2015). A Bayesian model of category-specific emotional brain responses. PLoS Computational Biology, 11(4), 1-27. https://doi.10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004066

Wang, S., Leviston, Z., Hurlstone, M., Lawrence, C., & Walker, I. (2018). Emotions predict policy support: Why it matters how people feel about climate change. Global Environmental Change, 50(1), 25-40. https://doi.10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2018.03.002

Weber, Ch. (2012). Emotions, campaigns, and political participation. Political Research Quarterly, 66(2), 414-428. https://doi.10.1177/1065912912449697

Wilner, A. (2019). US cyber deterrence: Practice guiding theory. Journal of Strategic Studies, 42(1), 1-36.

Winterich, K., Han, S., & Lerner, J. S. (2010). Now that I’m sad, it’s hard to be mad: The role of cognitive appraisals in emotional blunting. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36(11), 1467-1483. https://doi.10.1177/0146167210384710

Yong, E. (2018, November 19). Psychology’s replication crisis is running out of excuses. The Atlantic. Retrieved from

Zhan, J., Ren, J., Fan, J., & Luo, J. (2015). Distinctive effects of fear and sadness induction on anger and aggressive behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(725), 1-12. https://doi.10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00725

Zilincik, S. (2018, September 25). Strategy and the instrumental role of emotions. Strategic Bridge. Retrieved from