Actualización sobre el síndrome de estrés tibial medial

  • Santiago Gómez García Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Palabras clave: Síndrome de estrés tibial medial, periostitis tibial, dolor en pierna

Resumen

El síndrome de estrés tibial medial, SETM, una de las causas más comunes de dolor inducido por el ejercicio en las extremidades inferiores entre los practicantes de actividad física y deporte, como corredores y militares en formación, es un evento semiológico producido por lesiones repetitivas de estrés mecánico en la región medial de la tibia. No suele revestir gravedad, pero si no se trata adecuadamente puede evolucionar a lesiones incapacitantes, como la llamada fractura por estrés de la tibia. Existen factores de riesgo que contribuyen al desarrollo de la patología entre los que cabe mencionar el tipo de actividad, las inadecuadas técnicas de entrenamiento, las condiciones del terreno y el tipo de calzado utilizado, también la pronación anormal de la articulación subastragalina, el sexo femenino, un índice de masa corporal elevado, así como la disminución de la densidad mineral ósea. El diagnóstico generalmente se establece a través del interrogatorio y el examen físico, ya que las radiografías solo sirven para descartar fracturas por estrés de la tibia, y exámenes de imágenes más costosos no se justifican.  El tiempo de recuperación de los afectados por esta patología es bastante prolongado, lo que propicia la tendencia al abandono del tratamiento y, así, desfavorece la consecución de los objetivos terapéuticos propuestos. El tratamiento estándar de oro es la terapia física; sin embargo, existen otras modalidades terapéuticas con prometedoras perspectivas, entre las que sobresale la terapia por ondas de choque extracorpóreas, respecto de la cual los estudios disponibles son todavía insuficientes, pues tanto la fisiopatología del SETM, como su prevención y su tratamiento aún no están claros. En atención a lo anteriormente expuesto, este artículo presenta una revisión del estado del arte de los aspectos fundamentales de la patología. 

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Biografía del autor/a

Santiago Gómez García, Universidad Complutense de Madrid

Doctor (PhD) en Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Doctor en Medicina. Instituto Superior de Ciencias Médicas de Villa Clara. Cuba. Especialista en Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología. Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Limeira. São Paulo. Brasil. Especialista en Medicina de la Actividad Física y el Deporte. Universidad de Barcelona, España y Universidad de Sao Paulo. Brasil. Magíster en Traumatología del Deporte. Universidad de Barcelona. España.

Cómo citar
Gómez GarcíaS. (2016). Actualización sobre el síndrome de estrés tibial medial. Revista Científica General José María Córdova, 14(17), 225-242. https://doi.org/10.21830/19006586.13

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Publicado
2016-01-30
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