La inmunidad soberana y el caso de los Estados Unidos versus Noriega

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21830/19006586.1159

Palabras clave:

derecho internacional, General Noriega, General Torrijos, inmunidad soberana, jefe de Estado, soberanía

Resumen

La inmunidad soberana es una doctrina internacional según la cual ni un soberano ni un Estado pueden ser demandados por tribunales judiciales extranjeros. Los Estados Unidos regulan esta figura jurídica a través de la Ley de Inmunidades Soberanas Extranjeras de 1976. Dicha regulación, sin embargo, no define la inmunidad soberana de jefes de Estado. Por eso, el caso de los Estados Unidos contra Noriega resulta de gran interés, pues fue la primera vez que los tribunales judiciales de un país juzgaron a un jefe de Estado de otro país. En este caso, los tribunales cometieron un error al no solicitarle al órgano ejecutivo una aclaración oficial para definir el estatus de jefe de Estado del General Noriega. En ese sentido, la decisión no se apegó al estricto derecho y se basó en motivaciones políticas.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Biografía del autor/a

Yovani Edgar Chavez-Rodriguez, Sistema Nacional de Investigación (SNI), SENACYT / UMECIT, Ciudad de Panamá, Panamá

PhD en administración de empresas, Universidad del Istmo de Panamá; magíster en estudios de seguridad estratégica, Universidad de Defensa Nacional de Washington D.C., y magíster en artes y ciencias operacionales militares, Universidad del Aire, Alabama, EE. UU. Es profesor de la Universidad Metropolitana de Educación, Ciencia y Tecnología, Panamá.

Referencias bibliográficas

Almanza, A., Tejada, J., Velásquez, O., Murria, J., & Berguido, F. (2002). Informe Final de la Comisión de la Verdad. Defensoría del Pueblo de Panamá. https://tinyurl.com/bdfhzdwy

Asamblea Nacional de Representantes de Corregimientos. (1989, 15 de diciembre). Resolución 10/11. https://www.gacetaoficial.gob.pa/gacetas/21436_1989.pdf

Benton, A. (2021). Charter schools, EMOs, and sovereign immunity. North Carolina Law Review, 99(3), 753-788. https://tinyurl.com/mv7hdpyf

Biblia del Oso. (1569). Casiodoro de Reina (Trad.). https://estudialabiblia.co/2016/06/30/la-biblia-del-oso/

Brady, R., & Reid, J. (2021). Protecting the throne: The Third Circuit’s decision to preserve sovereign immunity in Gentile v. SEC. Iowa Law Review, 66(4), 783-798. https://digitalcommons.law.villanova.edu/vlr/vol66/iss4/4/

Candanedo, Z. (2021, 13 de noviembre). Las elecciones generales de 1984 como vehículo de docencia. La Estrella de Panamá. https://tinyurl.com/32bcwk5n

Cantanzaro, M. (2020). What is absolute immunity? Law Offices of Mark W. Catanzaro. https://catanzarolaw.com/2020/12/what-is-absolute-immunity/

Cole, M. (2022). Don’t “estop” me now: Estoppel, government contract law, and sovereign immunity if Congress retroactively repeals public service loan forgiveness. Lewis & Clark Law Review, 26(1), 153-217. https://law.lclark.edu/live/files/33138-261-cole

Constitución de la República de Panamá. (1972). Asamblea Nacional Constituyente. https://tinyurl.com/2tj29afw

Constitution Annotated. (s. f.). ArtII.S2.C2.1.10 Breach and termination of treaties [anotaciones al artículo]. Constitution Annotated: Analysis and interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. https://tinyurl.com/5n7uzp2u

Crane, P. (1993, 5 de enero). 103D Congress. 1st Session. H. Con. Res. 2. U.S. Congress. https://tinyurl.com/bddbk7u5

Crocker, K. (2021). Reconsidering section 1983’s nonabrogation of sovereign immunity. Florida Law Review, 73(3), 523-590. https://tinyurl.com/6276ytja

Crocker, K. (2022). Qualified immunity, sovereign immunity, and systemic reform. Daw Law Journal, 71(8), 1701-1780. https://tinyurl.com/37sdzw74

Dirección Nacional de Inteligencia (DNI). (2021, 11 de febrero). Assessing the Saudi Government’s role in the killing of Jamal Khashoggi. Office of the Director of National Intelligence. https://tinyurl.com/yc6awusu

Engelberg, S., & Gerth, J. (1988, 28 de septiembre). Bush and Noriega: Examination of their ties. The New York Times. https://tinyurl.com/4xhehekf

Ex parte Young. (1908). 209 U.S. 123. https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/209/123/

Federal Republic of Germany v. Philipp. (2020). Ballotpedia. https://tinyurl.com/23m5vs53

Federal Republic of Germany v. Philipp. (2021). Federal Republic of Germany v. Philipp. Comment on 141 S. Ct. 703 (2021). Harvard Law Review, 135(1), 441-450. https://bit.ly/48dyl56

Fernández, H. (2021). Golpe Militar de 1968. Panamá América. https://tinyurl.com/4jh7rjn6

Fischer v. Magyar Államvasutak Zrt. (2018). FindLaw. https://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-7th-circuit/1937425.html

Gandásegui, M. (1990). Democracia, intervención y elecciones: Panamá 1989. Revista Mexicana de Sociología, 52(4), 371-389. https://doi.org/10.2307/3540614

Gerstenzang, J. (1989, 21 de diciembre). Noriega Flees; Reward posted: 15 GIs killed as U.S. Forces topple Panama Regime. Los Angeles Times. https://lat.ms/41jb6o6

Guardia, M. (2018, 11 de octubre). Así fue el golpe de Estado de 1968. La Estrella de Panamá. https://tinyurl.com/mp3hdzy4

Guardia, M. (2021, 3 de marzo). Gobernar en tiempos de crisis. La Estrella de Panamá. https://tinyurl.com/2y8y4mzf

Gujrati, N. (2021). The doctrine of sovereign immunity - An analysis. Jus Corpus Law Journal, 2(2), 238-243. https://tinyurl.com/3n86pkky

Hamilton, A. (1788, 4 de abril). The appointing power continued and other powers of the executive considered. Federalist 77. https://tinyurl.com/r8x44n2m

Hasson, A. (2002). Extraterritorial jurisdiction and sovereign immunity on trial: Noriega, Pinochet, And Milosevic - Trends in political accountability and transnational criminal law. Boston College International & Comparative Law Review, 25, 125-158.

Hernández, R. (2021a, 8 de agosto). Díaz Herrera se refiere al “Gargantazo” de Royo. La Crítica de Panamá. https://tinyurl.com/3kfcfs33

Hernández, R. (2021b, 24 de diciembre). Noriega se refugia en la nunciatura el 24 de diciembre de 1989. La Crítica de Panamá. https://tinyurl.com/3fmn9hcx

Hilao v. Estate of Marcos. (1994). 25 F.3d 1467. Case Law Access Project (Harvard Law School). https://cite.case.law/f3d/25/1467/

Hughes, J. (2021). Rex Non Potest Peccare: The unsettled state of sovereign immunity and constitutional torts. Drake Law Review, 69(4), 949-980.

Kirchgaessner, S. (2022, 18 de noviembre). Biden administration says Mohammed bin Salman should be granted sovereign immunity in Khashoggi civil case. The Guardian. https://tinyurl.com/3772ed4k

Kondrashov, N. (2022). Sovereign immunity from execution (in enforcement). Jus Mundi.

Lafontant v. Aristide. (1994). 844 F. Supp. 128. https://tinyurl.com/3aae2cd5

Legal Information Institute. (2023). Qualified immunity. Cornell Law School. https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/qualified_immunity

Liu, M. (2021, 20 de diciembre). The scope of sovereign criminal immunity: Instrumentalities under the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law. https://tinyurl.com/mph3fbmf

Mallory, J. (1986). Resolving the confusion over head of state immunity: The defined rights of kings. Columbia Law Review, 86(1), 169-197. https://doi.org/10.2307/1122620

Malman, M. (2002). United States v. Manuel Noriega: Never before, never again. American Bar Association, 28(2), 13-20. https://www.jstor.org/stable/29760265

Martin, N. (2022). Brewing disharmony: Addressing tribal sovereign immunity claims in bankruptcy. American Bankruptcy Law Journal, 96(1), 145-iv.

Mazzucco, F. (2021). Inmunidad soberana: jurisdicción y ejecución aplicación a Estados y sus entidades. Revista de Derecho, 24, 177-201. https://doi.org/10.22235/rd24.2568

Oxford Reference. (2023). Par in parem non habet imperium. https://tinyurl.com/4fzawwxc

Palm, M. (2017, 30 de mayo). Manuel Antonio Noriega acumulaba 60 años en condenas por homicidio y asociación ilícita. La Prensa de Panama. https://tinyurl.com/ekxkc4dp

Panama Canal Treaties. (1977).. The University of Florida Digital Collections; U.S. Department of State. https://dloc.com/AA00054954/00001/images/22

Pichirallo, J. (1988). Indictments depict Noriega as drug-trafficking kingpin. The Washington Post. https://tinyurl.com/yy63cvxn

Plescia, J. (2001). Judicial accountability and immunity in Roman law. American Journal of Legal History, 45(1), 51-70. https://doi.org/10.2307/3185349

Republic of Austria v. Altmann. (2003). Republic of Austria v. Altmann. Oyez. https://www.oyez.org/cases/2003/03-13

Republic of Hungary v. Simon. (2020). Ballotpedia. https://ballotpedia.org/Republic_of_Hungary_v._Simon

Ridding, A. (1976, 10 de octubre). A troubled dictator. The New York Times. https://tinyurl.com/mss9arav

Sandoval, A. (2023). Maduro cancela participación de Venezuela en la cumbre de la CELAC por posible “ataque”. Anadolu Agency. https://tinyurl.com/3y26abrj

Schultz, A. (2021). Sovereign immunity and the two tiers of Article III. George Mason Law Review, 29(1), 287-374. https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3969685

Senon, P. (1988). Noriega indicted by U.S. for links to illegal drugs. The New York Times.

Shahi, K. (2022, 12 de julio). Case brief: The schooner exchange Vs. M’Faddon. The Legal Lock. https://tinyurl.com/2yu668fr

Sherman, M. (1989). An inquiry regarding the international and domestic legal problems presented in United States V. Noriega. The University of Miami Inter-American Law Review, 20(2), 393-428. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40176218

Shiyab, T. (2021). The impact of social media on the rights of the accused in Jordan: Does public opinion matter? Cogent Arts & Humanities, 8(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311983.2021.1994112

Silow, A. (2022). Bubbles over barriers: Amending the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act for cyber accountability. Journal of National Security Law & Policy, 12, 659-684. https://tinyurl.com/5n76v9zv

The Harvard Law Review Association. (1998). Separation of powers. Head-of-State Immunity. Eleventh Circuit holds that the executive branch’s capture of Noriega exempts him from head-of-state immunity. Harvard Law Review, 111(3), 849-854. https://doi.org/10.2307/1342208

The Tampa Bay Times. (1990, 25 de octubre). Noriega hit with civil suit from Panama. https://tinyurl.com/y67yynpn

U.S. Congress. (1791). Sixth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. Constitution Annotated: Analysis and interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. https://constitution.congress.gov/constitution/amendment-6/

U.S. Congress. (1794a). Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America (Amendment XI). U.S. Government Publishing Office. https://tinyurl.com/3mmxddxf

U.S. Congress. (1794b). Eleventh Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. Constitution Anotated. https://constitution.congress.gov/constitution/amendment-11/

U.S. Department of Justice. (2020, 26 de marzo). Nicolás Maduro Moros and 14 current and former Venezuelan officials charged with narco-terrorism, corruption, drug trafficking and other criminal charges [comunicado de prensa]. https://tinyurl.com/45wmrn5j

U.S. Department of State. (1972). 561. Telegram 4843 from the Embassy in Panama to the Department of State. Office of the Historian. https://tinyurl.com/454xkttv

U.S. Department of State. (1977). 85. Memorandum of conversation. Office of the Historian. https://tinyurl.com/yps5wd24

U.S. Department of State. (2020). Nicolás Maduro Moros - New target. https://www.state.gov/nicolas-maduro-moros-new-target/

U.S. v. Pangang Group Co. (2022). Criminal law - Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act - Ninth Circuit holds that certain Chinese state-owned companies are not foreign “instrumentalities” and thus lack immunity under the FSIA from criminal prosecution - United States v. Pangang Group Co. Harvard Law Review, 135(6), 1680-1687. https://tinyurl.com/yncpsy2k

United States v. Noriega. (1990). ICRC. https://tinyurl.com/28ytmsde

United States v. Noriega. (1997). United States of America, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. Manuel Antonio Noriega, Defendant-Appellant. Nos. 92-4687, 96-4471. FindLaw. https://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-11th-circuit/1089768.html

Wadhwa, T. (2021). Panamanians demand justice for the victims of the 1989 US invasion. Peoples Dispatch. https://tinyurl.com/4sv7jjsr

Yelin, L. (2011). Head of state immunity as sole executive lawmaking. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law Manuscript, 44, 911-997. https://tinyurl.com/2auunnyz

Zhang, B. (2022). The dilemma of applying state sovereign immunity in inter partes review proceedings. Federal Circuit Bar Journal, 31(1), 41-70. https://doi.org/10.1093/ejil/chab098

Descargas

Publicado

2023-10-01

Cómo citar

Chavez-Rodriguez, Y. E. (2023). La inmunidad soberana y el caso de los Estados Unidos versus Noriega. Revista Científica General José María Córdova, 21(44), 967–986. https://doi.org/10.21830/19006586.1159

Métricas

QR Code
Crossref Cited-by logo
Estadísticas de artículo
Vistas de resúmenes
Vistas de PDF
Descargas de PDF
Vistas de HTML
Otras vistas

Algunos artículos similares: